Shiga toxin ELISAs
15 February 2017 – Abraxis Shiga Toxin ELISAs are able to differentiate between Stx1 and Stx2 in diverse food and environmental sample matrices such as beef, greens, water, and milk with 100% confidence.
BMAA in Water and Tissue
20 January 2017 – The Abraxis BMAA ELISA was employed to measure β-n-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in water and fish tissues.
Proficiency Testing 2017
3 January 2017 – Registration for 2017 Proficiency Testing is now open. Go to http://www.abraxiskits.com/products/algal-toxins/#proficiency to sign up.
Draft Recreational Water Advisory
12 December 2016 – The U.S. EPA has released a Draft Human Health Recreational Ambient Water Quality Criteria and/or Swimming Advisories for Microcystins and Cylindrospermopsin.
Abraxis Recognized for Outstanding Contribution
3 November 2016 – The North American Lake Management Society has named Abraxis the 2016 recipient of the Jim Flynn Outstanding Corporation Award, for having made “the most significant contributions to NALMS goals and objectives.”
US EPA Publishes Method 546
10 October 2016 – The U.S. EPA has published Method 546: Determination of Total Microcystins and Nodularins in Drinking Water and Ambient Water by ADDA Enzyme-Linked Immuosorbent Assay.
Shiga Toxin ELISA Kits
30 August 2016 – Unlike other Shiga Toxin detection kits and antibodies, Abraxis Shiga Toxin ELISA kits detect all but one known Shiga toxin subtypes, from single colonies on agar plates (Austin Immunology (2016), 1(2): 1007). Applications available for a variety of foods, including beef, leafy greens, water, and milk.
New Certified Analytical Cyanotoxin Standards
30 August 2016 – Now available, Certified cyanotoxin standards for Anatoxin-a (+), Cylindrospermopsin, Microcystin LR and RR, and Saxitoxin.
Cyanobacterial Blooms Occurring Across the US
29 August 2016 – Poisonous Algae Blooms Threaten People, Ecosystems Across U.S..
Glyphosate in Beer and Wine
22 August 2016 – Abraxis presents poster on glyphosate in domestic and imported beers and wines at the 252nd Annual American Chemical Society conference in Philadelphia.
Cylindrospermopsin Strip Tests
27 July 2016 – The first ever Cylindrospermopsin Strip Tests are now available. On-site testing, results in under an hour, with a detection range of 0.5-10 ng/mL.
Recombinant Shiga Toxins
2 June 2016 — Abraxis launches a comprehensive selection of Recombinant Shiga Toxoids for use as standards in Shiga toxin assays, or for other research purposes.
New Anatoxin-a ELISA and Strip Tests
Legionella: A Growing Problem
1 May 2016 — An article in Water Quality Products magazine discusses the growing issue of Legionella contamination, and the availability of a new kit, Legipid, that allows rapid, accurate, onsite testing.
Detection of Glyphosate in German Beers
25 February 2016 — The Munich Environmental Institute reported that it had found glyphosate in 14 of Germany’s most popular beers. Some of the beers contained up to 30 ppb of the herbicide. Germany has strict beer purity laws (Reinheitsgebot) that go back to 1516. These laws are highly regarded in German beer culture. Abraxis’ Glyphosate ELISA test was used for the analysis. Samples containing the highest concentration of glyphosate were confirmed by traditional instrumental analysis technology.
Monitoring Cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a in Drinking Water
10 February 2016 — The US EPA has released UCMR 4, a list of proposed contaminants and detection methods for drinking water monitoring. LCMS was proposed as the method for monitoring cyanotoxins Cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a. However, ELISA detection has advantages over LCMS that include significant time and cost savings; it is for this reason that UCMR 4 proposes ELISA be used for Microcystin monitoring. Abraxis has submitted comments arguing that ELISA be used to also monitor Cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a.
Unusual Modes of Legionella Transmission
2 February 2016 — Legionella is a growing problem, and can be spread in unusual ways such as street cleaning and paving trucks. Other equipment such as trash and recycling trucks are also at risk.
Monitoring Legionella in Drinking Water
20 January 2016 — The US EPA has released UCMR 4, a list of proposed contaminants for drinking water monitoring. Infection by Legionella is the cause of deadly Legionnaires’ disease, and a growing problem globally. Although Legionella was considered by the EPA, the list can only include 30 contaminants, so it was not included in this round. Abraxis has submitted comments arguing that Legionella be included in UCMR 4.
Effects of Water Sample Treatment, Preparation, and Storage Prior to Cyanotoxin Analysis
19 January 2016 — The effects of water sample treatment, preparation, and storage prior to cyanotoxin analysis for cylindrospermopsin, microcystin and saxitoxin are reported in a paper by Kamp et al. in the journal of Chemico-Biological Interactions. It demonstrates that choice of collection vessel material, water treatment chemicals, and storage conditions can artificially alter the levels of cyanotoxins in water samples.
Abraxis Launches First Ever Anatoxin-a ELISA
11 January 2016 — Abraxis introduces the Anatoxin-a ELISA, the first available on the market. It is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.15 ppb (µg/L). The simplified protocol is similar to Cylindrospermopsin and Saxitoxin, with room temperature incubation and no sample concentration necessary. Samples should be immediately preserved with a solution provided in the kit, and can be used with both Anatoxin-a and Saxitoxin kits. Also coming soon are cyanotoxin dipsticks (strip tests): Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin, and Microcystin (0.3 ppb).
Popular Microcystins Proficiency Testing Program Returns in 2016
8 January 2016 — Abraxis will produce and distribute test materials to allow screening and confirmatory analysis to be conducted separately. The laboratory will test samples using their own test method (i.e. HPLC, ELISA, PP2A, etc.) and forward the results back to Abraxis. The end product of the proficiency testing program is a clear and comprehensive report, where data are recorded, analyzed, and statistically evaluated. Analytical methods are also listed.
Test Program 2016‐01 will consist of a total of 4 drinking water samples fortified with one to three of the following microcystin congeners: LR, RR, YR, LA, LF. Test Program 2016‐02 will consist of a total of 4 drinking water samples fortified with cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin‐a. Sign up deadline is March 30, 2016. Samples will be distributed on April 2016. Results are due by May 15, 2016. Reports will be available in June 2016. The program is open to all current testing technologies. Abraxis envisions an iteration of the program later in the year.
Abraxis Introduces the World’s First Commercial RBA Kit for Cylic Imine Neurotoxins
Abraxis will introduce a patented, receptor-binding assay (RBA) kit for the detection of three cylic imines, Pinnatoxin A, Pinnatoxin G, and Spirolide C, at the AOAC International Meeting in Boca Raton, FL next week. The kit uses a microtiter plate format with 12 removable strips of 8 wells (96T) and is suitable for the the quantitative and/or qualitative detection of cyclic imines in sea water and shellfish samples.
Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute a large new family of emergent marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellates origin that are potent antagonists of the nAChRs receptor. In humans and other animals, the skeletal neuromuscular junction constitutes a primary target for cyclic imine toxins. Although highly toxic to mice, cyclic imine toxins are not yet regulated. Mouse bioassay mortality following i.p. injection with contaminated shellfish extracts has already forced the prophylactic closure of conchylicultural activities in France and New Zealand. Humans and other animals may be exposed to cyclic imines through ingestion of contaminated shellfish.
Abraxis’ Glyphosate ELISA Kit Used to Confirm Glyphosate in Common Foods
12 February 2015 — “Researchers from Abraxis LLC and Boston University have further confirmed that the world’s most used herbicide – glyphosate – is widespread in food products around the globe. The researchers tested honey, pancake and corn syrup, soy sauce, soy milk and tofu purchased in the Philadelphia, US metropolitan area.” Read more…
Abraxis’ Progesterone/Bovine Pregnancy ELISA Kit Is Used to Improve Dairy Herd Reproductive Management and Milk Production
Abraxis LLC, a supplier of rapid detection solutions to the multi billion dollar global dairy industry, recently introduced a simple, reliable and inexpensive progesterone/bovine pregnancy ELISA kit for the early and accurate assessment of bovine oestrus cycle and pregnancy. Early detection of non pregnant cows is important to reduce calving intervals and optimize milk production. During the bovine oestrus cycle, the level of progesterone measurably changes. At the beginning of the oestrus cycle, low levels of progesterone will be detected. Artificial insemination (AI) is performed when progesterone levels are low. Pregnancy is confirmed when progesterone levels are elevated and continue to increase after day 20 of the cycle. Progesterone levels that drop after day 20 indicate the beginning of a new cycle. The determination of progesterone levels in dairy cattle is a valuable tool for maintaining an accurate time management of artificial insemination (AI) of open cows. Methods previously available for confirmation of bovine pregnancy were ultrasound and rectal palpation 30 to 40 days after AI.
The progesterone/bovine pregnancy ELISA kit determines progesterone directly from either raw milk or serum/plasma and can be performed in either a quantitative or semi-quantitative manner. By using a non invasive raw milk sample and the semi-quantitative protocol, visual results are available in about 45 minutes. A fieldable, portable, starter pack with a handheld, durable photometric analyzer with LCD readout, is available for onsite quantitative analysis.
Dave Deardorff, Vice-President of Marketing and Sales at Abraxis LLC, said, “The addition of the progesterone/bovine pregnancy kit to the sixteen pesticide, mycotoxin, veterinary residue/additive kits we already provide for milk applications demonstrates our committment to the expanding needs of the global dairy industry. We have already seen international progams integrate this testing into their operations.”
Abraxis LLC is a biotechnology company with a core expertise in creating better antibodies and real time test solutions for the food safety market. For over 15 years, Abraxis has been a leading immuno-solutions company developing results-oriented and innovative antibody based solutions that meet the expanding analytical needs of science and industry.
Middle School Students Used Abraxis Kits to Look at Common Pharmaceuticals in Waste Water
A group of 6th and 7th graders at Orcas Island High School in San Juan County, WA conducted a science project earlier this year looking at triclosan and 17-beta-estradiol in three local waste water treatment plants. Their report is available upon request.
Abraxis Caffeine ELISA Kit Can Now Be Used With Saliva and Urine
The Abraxis Caffeine ELISA kit user’s guide now includes applications to measure caffeine in biological fluids. Because of its very good sensitivity, discrimination between coffee drinkers, casual drinkers, and non-drinkers is possible.
Abraxis Submits Eight Additional Kits for Inclusion in NEMI
With the 8 additional kits, a total of 45 of Abraxis’ ELISA kits will be listed in the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), http://www.nemi.gov , an online, user-friendly, searchable database of method summaries funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. EPA. A Greenness Profile is also available for the listed kits. The Abraxis methods involve water analysis for estrogens, cyanotoxins, pesticides, and veterinary residues. Abraxis is committed to adding more analytes as they become available.
Abraxis’ Microcystins ELISA Kits Complete U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program
Abraxis has demonstrated the performance of their microtiter plate format Microcystins/Nodularins (ADDA) and DM ELISA kits as well as the lateral flow, dipstick, Recreational Water Strip Test Kit by participating in the ETV Program.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ETV program is to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost-effective technologies. ETV seeks to achieve this goal by providing the high-quality, peer-reviewed data on technology performance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies.
ETV works in partnership with recognized standards and testing organizations, with stakeholder groups and with individual technology developers. The program evaluates the performance of innovative technologies by developing test plans that are responsive to the needs of stakeholders, conducting field or laboratory tests, collecting and analyzing data, and preparing peer-reviewed reports. All evaluations are conducted in accordance with rigorous quality assurance (QA) protocols to ensure that data of known and adequate quality are generated and that the results are defensible.
Abraxis Cotinine ELISA Kit Can Now Be Used With Saliva and Urine
The Abraxis Cotinine ELISA kit user’s guide now includes applications to measure cotinine in biological fluids. Because of its very good sensitivity, discrimination between smokers, passive smokers, and non-smokers is possible.
Cylindrospermopsin and Saxitoxin ELISA Kits Referenced in the Standardized Analytical Methods (SAM)
Both the Abraxis’ Cylindrospermopsin and Saxitoxin ELISA kits are referenced in the Standardized Analytical Methods (SAM) for Environmental Restoration Following Homeland Security Events, EPA/600/R-04/126D, 29 Sep. ’08.
Abraxis Commercializes the World’s First Microcystins ELISA for Serum
Abraxis Introduces the World’s First Acrylamide ELISA Kit
Abraxis introduced an Acrylamide ELISA kit at SNAXPO 2010 in Fort Worth, TX, March 4th & 5th. The kit, PN 515675, uses a microtiter plate format with 12 removable strips of 8 wells (96T) and provides a real-time, on-site, economical, quantitative, accurate, sensitive, analytical alternative for risk management of Acrylamide in both snacks and fast foods.
Acrylamide is found as a natural byproduct of the cooking process. Methods in which temperature exceeds 120°C, such as baking, frying, grilling, and toasting can cause the amino acid asparagine to react with reducing sugars such as glucose to produce Acrylamide. High carbohydrate foods that are baked or fried at high temperatures contain the highest levels of Acrylamide.
Acrylamide is an essential industrial chemical with an estimated worldwide production of 200 million kg/year. It is used as a grouting agent in construction, a paper making aid, a soil conditioning agent in ore processing, in sewage treatment, and as a coagulant in water treatment. Acrylamide is a known carcinogen in laboratory animals, impairing fertility in male animals and causing nerve damage in humans with industrial exposure.
Bisphenol A (BPA) Kit Used in Dental Sealant Study
A recently published study in The Journal of Dental Hygiene used the Abraxis BPA ELISA Kit to detect and quantitate levels of BPA in saliva and serum prior to and after placement of dental sealants in adults. The direct competitive ELISA protocol was used on the recognition of BPA by specific monoclonal antibodies. Distinctively, the BPA ELISA used in this study provided a high level of sensitivity, with a detection range from 0.05 µg/L and coefficient of variation less than 10%.
Best in Science Fair (Florida State) Won By 11 Year-Old Using Abraxis Kit
“As you may recall, last July my 11 year-old daughter used your sulfamethanzine ELISA magnetic particle test kit (with photometer and related test equipment) to perform an experiment removing sulfamethazine from contaminated groundwater. I’m pleased to report that at last week’s Florida State Science Fair she received the Best-in-State nod from the judges: (a) First Place, Environmental Science, Junior Division; and (b) Best in Fair, Physical Sciences, Junior Division (i. e. the Grand Prize Award). The Florida State Science and Engineering Fair was a competition between the top 829 science fair projects in Florida form an original pool of more than 100,000 science fair projects at the local school level. My daughter advance to the State Competition as the First Place award winner in Environmental Science from the Palm Beach County Regional Science and Engineering Fair.
My daughter and I thank you for your past support and for producing a superlative ELISA test that can be both understood and expertly performed by a middle school student. My daughter told me that she explained the Abraxis ELISA test multiple times to numerous judges and answered all of their questions about your product. She understands the technology, procedures, and why the test works. Bravo!
Thanks again for all of your past support and help. We are delighted to continue our relationship with Abraxis! Thank you Curtis and thank you Abraxis for helping to produce a Best-in-State science fair project.”
Four ELISA Kits Now Available for Ionophores
Four ELISA kits are now available for the determination of Lasalocid, Maduramicin, Monensin, and Salinomycin/Narasin. Developed for low level detection with a LOQ of 30 ppb, these kits are ideal for testing feeds for avians and mammals, such as cats and dogs, suseptable to very low levels of ionophore toxicity. The kits use a common, greatly simplified sample clean up allowing for real time results.
Broadcom MASTERS Finalist Used Abraxis’ Kit
Abraxis Introduces the World’s First Commerical ELISA Kit for BMAA (beta-Methylamino-L-alanine)
Abraxis introduced an ELISA kit for the controversial cyanotoxin BMAA at the 8th National Monitoring Conference in Portland, OR, April 30th – May 4th. The kit, PN 520040, uses a microtiter plate format with 12 removable strips of 8 wells (96T). Incorporated into the kit is new technology for which a patent has been applied for. The kit provides a real-time, economical, quantitative, accurate, sensitive, analytical alternative for both research and monitoring programs.
AWWA Recommends EPA Develop a Special Sampling Plan for Algal Toxins Using ELISA Assays
AWWA recommends using the List 3 component of UCMR3 to do targeted monitoring of anatoxin-a, microcystin-LR, and/or cylindrospermopsin. Given available methods and laboratory capacity, developing a Pre-Screening Testing Survey for algal toxins would be more likely to collect useful data than the proposed ground water monitoring using qPCR testing. AWWA recommends EPA develop a special sampling plan for algal toxins using ELISA assays, backed up by research-grade LC-MS-MS methods. This monitoring should not be based on a routine quarterly or semi-annual schedule, but rather include samples collected based on the occurrence of blooms and limited to utilities that have surface water supplies with appropriate bloom formation conditions.
Abraxis Offers Economical Means to Test for Most of the Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs) Recommended for Initial Monitoring in California’s Aquatic Ecosystems
Please click on the link below for further infomation:
Abraxis Offers a Human Urine Application for Its Glyphosate ELISA Kits
In response to a recent study conducted by a German university that found very high concentrations of glyphosate in human urine samples, we now offer an application for this matrix. The amount of glyphosate found in the urine by this study was elevated 5 to 20-fold the limit established for drinking water.
Article by 11-year-old Author Using Abraxis ELISA Kit is Published in the Journal of Environmental Quality
Analysis of Pharmaceuticals. Industrial Chemicals, Algae Toxins and Endocrine Disruptors in Southeastern Alberta Waterways
… is the title of a report authored by Morgan Basiuk and Rachel Brown of the South East Alberta Water Alliance (seawa). Through the cooperative efforts of the Alberta Association of Colleges and Technical Institutes, the City of Medicine Hat, Hyperion Research Ltd., a private donation and the Defense Research and Development Canada, the work, using thirteen Abraxis ELISA kits, was performed during the summer of 2012.
“What is in Our Waterways?— AN OVERVIEW
Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, industrial chemicals and endocrine disruptors in the water-cycle are becoming increasingly concerning. In the last decade, traces of pharmaceuticals in the levels of nanograms to micrograms per liter have been reported in surface waters, wastewater, groundwater and, to a smaller degree, drinking water. These chemicals can enter the environment and waterways from human and animal excretion, wastewater effluent, treated sewage sludge, industrial waste, medical waste and landfill leachate.
It is important to determine the presence of these chemicals in the waterways to determine the necessity to implement policies and remediation procedures. The presence of these chemicals in the environment is concerning for a number of reasons. One major concern is the continual increase in the development of resistance to pharmaceuticals and antimicrobial products. Furthermore, the accumulation and presence of these chemicals in the water ways can affect animal and human health in a multitude of ways. To a great extent however, these harmful health effects are unknown due to the lack of research. What is known is that many of these compounds have cancer-causing effects and some can act as endocrine-disrupters by mimicking the body’s hormones. Thus, this research is very important due to the potential these chemicals have to harm the aquatic environment and subsequently humans if they make their way into drinking water.
This particular study was conducted to evaluate the methodology for the determination of several chemicals in water samples using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits purchased from Abraxis LLC (Warminster, PA, USA). Methodological protocols were adapted from the procedures provided by Abraxis LLC and trials were conducted. Provided kit standards of known chemical concentrations were put through multiple trials until confidence was built in the methodology and consistent linear standard curves were produced. A methodology for appropriate analysis of the resulting absorbance values was also determined. Precise and accurate methods were determined for each compound that we now practice with confidence.
A secondary objective of this research was to determine the concentrations of these chemicals at selected sites around Medicine Hat. These included the South Saskatchewan River downstream of Medicine Hat, Seven Persons Creek, Ross Creek, Medicine Hat Wastewater Treatment Plant influent and effluent, tap water and deionized water. The following chemicals were analyzed: alkylphenols, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, glyphosates, benzo(a)pyrene, triclosan, estrogens, ethinylestradiol, testosterone, avermectins, 2,4-D, microcystins and carbamates. The results for each of these compounds are outlined in separate reports for each compound. These reports include background information on the chemical, the methodology we determined and tabulated data of the resulting concentrations.”
Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS) Beads for the “Big Six” non-O157 shiga toxin production E. coli (STEC)
Abraxis announces the commercialization and immediate availability of both its Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS) Beads for the “Big Six” non-O157 shiga toxin production E. coli (STEC) as well as the expansion of its LAT product line to now include a kit for O104.
The IMS products are intended for the rapid and selective concentration of non-O157 STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 as described in the USDA-FSIS Microbiological Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5B.02.
The O104 LAT kit is intended for the identification of presumptive positive colonies and complements the existing six kits which are based on the work of Medina, M. et. al. entitled “Latex Agglutination Assays for Detection of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145” published in the Journal of Food Protection 75(5): 819-826 and also presented at the annual meeting of the International Association for Food Protection (IAFP).
Abraxis’ LAT Kits for the Big Six
The Abraxis Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) kits for the “Big Six” non-O157 shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) have been reviewed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and are now listed in the recently updated USDA Microbiological Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5B.03 as the LAT reagents to be used in non-O157 STEC testing.
The kits are intended for the identification of presumptive positive colonies as described in the USDA MLG and are based on the work of Medina, M. et. al. entitled “Latex Agglutination Assays for Detection of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin – Producing Escherichia coli Serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145” published in the Journal of Food Protection 75(5):819-826 and also presented at the recent annual meeting of the International Association for Food Protection (IAFP).
Triclosan Fuels Cyanobacteria Growth Downstream of Combined Sewer Discharge
A recently published paper in the journal Environmental Science and Technology correlated urbanization with a rise in triclosan concentrations in sediments and the proportion of bottom-dwelling bacteria resistant to triclosan. Combined sewer overflows that release untreated sewage are a major source of triclosan pollution. There are nearly 800 cities in the US that use combined sewers. Triclosan exposure triggers an increase in triclosan-resistent bacteria. Futhermore, there is a decrease in the
diversity of benthic bacteria and a shift in the composition of bacterial communities. Most notable were a 6-fold increase in cyanobacteria and a dramatic die-off of algae.
Abraxis provides kits for monitoring triclosan and cyanotoxins.
Azoxystrobin and Pyraclostrobin ELISA Kits Are Now Available
Azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin are among nine fungicides recently reviewed in a USGS report for their effects on fish and invertabrates in the aquatic environment. They were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface water, or likely persistence in the environment.
Domestic historical data shows that 91% of the total pounds applied of azoxystrobin for agricultural use were with rice (56%), peanuts (24%) and grapes (11%). More recently, another USGS report shows azoxystrobin was detected in 45% of the targeted samples and that selected application of`fungicides has grown substantially over the past decade.
The two kits will be submitted for inclusion in the National Methods Index (NEMI), http://www.nemi.gov, an online, user-friendly, searchable data base of method summaries that is funded by the USGS and US EPA. With the two additions, a total of 47 of Abraxis’s kits will be listed in NEMI.
Abraxis Introduces the World’s First Commerical Kit for Anatoxin-a
Abraxis introduces a patented, microtiter plate format (96T), receptor-binding assay (RBA) for the Anatoxin-a. Practioners can select between two protocols. Both protocols require incubations at 37C. The “EZ” protocol requires no sample preparation and has a range of 5 to 500 ppb. An enhanced sensitivity (ES) SPE sample concentration may be performed for programs requiring a lower limit of detection. The kit provides a real-time, economical, quantitative, accurate, sensitive, analytical
alternative for both research and monitoring programs.
Anatoxin-a is an alkaloid neurotoxin produced by some species of cyanobacteria. It is one of the most toxic of the cyanotoxins. In humans and other animals, the skeletal neuromuscular junction constitutes a primary target for Anatoxin-a. Anatoxin-a can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The neuromuscular junction is specialized for the rapid transmission of neuronal information from the pre-synaptic nerve terminal to the post-synaptic muscle fiber. This transmission is mediated by the synchronous release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the muscle endplate, triggering a series of events that lead to muscle contraction. Most ACh molecules are hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterases, which are highly concentrated at the neuromuscular junction. Anatoxin-a functions as an agonist of nAChRs, like ACh, but is about 20 times more potent. Unlike ACh, it is not degraded by acetylcholinesterases and produces sustained depolarization of the muscle endplate, causing overstimulation of the muscles, leading to muscle fatigue and ultimately paralysis. Symptoms begin within 5 minutes of ingestion of Anatoxin-a and progress rapidly, resulting in cyanosis, convulsions, cardiac arrhythmia, and respiratory paralysis, which ultimately results in death due to suffocation. Humans and other animals may be exposed to Anatoxin-a through ingestion of contaminated water via drinking or during recreational activities in which water is swallowed. Due to the potential for serious harm and even death, many countries are expanding monitoring programs to include Anatoxin-a and are establishing regulations regarding the amount of Anatoxin-a in drinking and recreational waters.
Ionophore Contaminated Feed Kills 12 Race Horses
The death of a dozen racing horses and another 18 that have fallen ill has exposed a western hemisphere feed manufacture to a multimillion dollar liability. Laboratory analyses found narasin, an ionophore, in 80% of the samples tested. Narasin is often added to broiler chicken feeds for prevention of coccidiosis, a disease of birds and mammals that chiefly affects the intestines. Ingestion of narasin by horses, cattle, turkeys, dogs, cats, rabbits and rats has proven to be fatal.
The risks of ionophore contaminated feed producing deaths and illnesses are minimized with an inexpensive, on site, real time testing system.
Abraxis Provides Shipboard Test Systems that Enable Georges Bank Clam Beds to Reopen After Being Closed for 20 Years
Anatoxin-a is Responsible for 100 Elk Deaths in New Mexico
Rapid Strip Test for Aflatoxin M1 is Now Available
Abraxis now provides a lateral flow, cassette format, strip test kit for
Aflatoxin M1 that satisfies both the EU Maximum Residue Limit (50ppt) and
the US FDA action limit (500ppt) in a milk sample – all in a single kit!
The kit can be used for preliminary screening of milk, dry/powdered milk and
infant formula. The Abraxis Aflatoxin M1 Strip Test complements the
Melamine Strip Test for Milk in providing real time screening for milk and
related products. Both kits are also available in a quantitative,
microtiter plate format.